The Russian Revolution consisted of two revolutions in 1917 that ended Tsarist rule and eventually replaced it with a communist state. The first revolution was mainly centred in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and overthrew Tsar Nicholas II. The second revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik party. It overthrew the provisional government and established communism.
St Isaac’s Square, St Petersburg
Cossack troops sitting in St Issac’s Square.
These Cossack troops, loyal to the provisional government, likely soon melted away as the Bolshevised sailors and soldiers fanned out through the city, seizing key buildings and infrastructure. (1917 photo: Getty Images)
Palace Square, St Petersburg
Protesters march in favour of continuing the war effort.
The lead banner reads: “In the name of freedom, [continue] the war against Germanism until full victory.” But pro-war sentiment dwindled after the offensive launched against Germany in July ended disastrously for Russia. (1917 photo: Sputnik)
Field Of Mars, St Petersburg
A funeral for casualties of the revolution. (1917 photo: Shutterstock)
Red Square, Moscow
The revolution soon spread throughout Russia.
This political speech in Moscow was photographed in the early days of the February Revolution. (1917 photo: Alamy)
Alexander Palace, St Petersburg
Three of former tsar Nicholas II’s daughters along with his son, left to right: Olga, Alexis, Anastasia and Tatiana, seated on the ground at Tsarskoe Selo. Alexis was the former heir to the Russian throne, in captivity near St Petersburg. Just over a year after this photo was taken, the entire family was shot and bayonetted to death by Bolshevik revolutionaries. (1917 photo: Alamy)
Nevsky Prospekt, St Petersburg
A demonstration of Bolshevik supporters in central St Petersburg. (1917 photo: Shutterstock)
The Winter Palace, St Petersburg
Soldiers tasked with guarding the provisional government inside the Winter Palace days before it was stormed by soldiers and sailors fighting on behalf of Lenin’s Bolsheviks. (1917 Photo: Alamy)
Red Square, Moscow
Members of women’s death batallion swear an oath before being sent to the front. Battalions of women were intended to shame the men into continuing the fight against Germnay. (1917 Photo: Sputnik)
Gorky Park, Moscow
Bolshevik troops in Moscow. By early November 1917, Moscow was also under the control of Bolshevik fighters. (1917 Photo: Sputnik)
Theatre Square, Moscow
Lenin speaking in central Moscow. By 1918, the revolution had morphed into a civil war between Lenin’s “Red” Bolsheviks and a collection of forces known as the “Whites”. The violence in Russia was just beginning.