로그인




연락처 :
bolle1917@gmail.com

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-44052734


The impact of Iran sanctions - in charts

Close-up image of Iranian Rial banknotes and US one dollar billsImage copyrightAFP

Uncertainty is hanging over the future of the Iran nuclear deal following the US decision to withdraw.

Under the 2015 agreement, Iran agreed to curb its nuclear activities in return for the lifting of sanctions imposed by the UN, US and EU.

President Donald Trump's announcement that the US will leave the deal means that Washington will begin reinstating sanctions.

But what will the economic impact be on Iran and its trading partners?

Graph showing value of Iranian oil and gas exports from 2006-18

What happens next?

The US Treasury has said that there will be wind-down periods of 90 and 180 days before sanctions are implemented.

The first deadline, on 6 August, will affect the purchase of US dollars, trade in gold and certain other metals, as well as aviation and the car industry.

The next wind-down period will end on 4 November and will target Iran's financial and oil institutions.

At the end of the 180 days, sanctions will also be reinstated against individuals who were previously on the US Treasury sanctions list.

Graph showing amount of Iranian oil and gas exports from 2010-18
Chart showing fluctuating economic growth in Iran

Who buys Iran's oil?

Iran is one of the world's largest oil producers, and the export of oil and gas is worth billions of dollars each year.

Graph showing Iran's largest customers, November 2017 to April 2018

But both the country's oil output and its GDP fell noticeably under international sanctions.

And while the US itself is not a major customer, foreign companies and other countries that continue to deal with Iran after the wind-down periods will face US sanctions if they fail to reduce or end their trade.

Graph showing value of US trade with Iran between 2004-18

European oil companies could be particularly hit - French company Total signed a $5bn deal with Iran after the agreement, while BP has a joint venture to operate the Rhum gas field with Iran's state oil company.

What about other sectors?

The sanctions will have an impact on other industries too.

Under the announcement, companies selling commercial aeroplanes to Iran will be particularly hit.

Companies such as Airbus and Boeing - which had agreed deals with Iran to sell 100 and 80 aircraft respectively after the 2015 deal - stand to lose billions of dollars because of the use of US-made parts in construction.

Tourism in Iran had also benefited from the nuclear deal, with visitor numbers increasing from 3.8 million visitors in 2012 to over 5 million in 2015, and this could also be affected by renewed sanctions.

Graph showing top five destinations for non-oil products

What are the options?

There is still some hope for Iran's trading partners, as the other parties to the 2015 nuclear agreement - the UK, France, China, Russia and Germany - have pledged their continuing support for the deal.

The US government has said that exemptions for those dealing with Iran are possible, although it has not yet given any details about which companies could benefit.

If that fails, the EU could also use a blocking statute to protect companies conducting business with Iran from US sanctions, as it did when it lifted its own sanctions on Cuba.

?

List of Articles
번호 제목 글쓴이 날짜 조회 수
525 [터키/미국] Erdogan Claims To Have Evidence, Photos, Video Of U.S. Coalition Support For ISIS-Daesh 볼셰비키 2017.01.10 14
524 [터키/러시아] The Turkish Assault on Russia’s SU-24 was Guided by U.S. Air Force 볼셰비키 2015.12.07 174
523 [터키/러시아/미국] An Invisible US Hand Leading to War? 볼셰비키 2015.12.07 56
522 [터키/SWP] No to the coup! Fight for democracy! 볼셰비키 2016.07.19 11
521 [크론슈타트] Kronstadt: Trotsky was right! 볼셰비키-레닌주의자 2014.11.21 264
520 [쿠바] Fidel Castro and the Right to Be a Marxist-Leninist 볼셰비키 2015.05.12 58
519 [쿠바] Cuba: the Looming Crisis 볼셰비키 2016.07.26 40
518 [쿠바] Cuba on the verge of inequality 볼셰비키 2017.11.14 82
517 [쿠바/트로츠키] “In Cuba we needed Trotsky to understand what happened in the Soviet Union” 볼셰비키 2019.05.28 59
516 [캐나다] Toronto university strikes 볼셰비키 2015.04.07 76
515 [캐나다] Headed for a showdown in Quebec 볼셰비키 2015.10.11 54
514 [캐나다] 100,000 workers in the streets of Montreal: A glimpse of what is to come 볼셰비키-레닌주의자 2014.12.03 346
513 [캐나다/IBT] Fake Trotskyists & Social Democrats in Canadian Election 볼셰비키 2015.10.13 54
512 [카탈로니아/스페인] Mass demonstrations mark anniversary of Catalan independence referendum 볼셰비키 2018.10.04 56
511 [카슈미르/인도/ICL] 카슈미르의 민족자결권을 위하여 인도군은 카슈미르 계곡에서 떠나라! 볼셰비키 2019.08.19 2
Board Pagination Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... 40 Next
/ 40